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THE CAMBRIDGE MEDIEVAL HISTORY

VOLUME Il

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS DLondvon: FETTER LANE, E.C. Cc. F. CLAY, MANAGER

€vinburgh: roo, PRINCES STREET Berlin: A. ASHER AND CO. Leipsiq: F. A. BROCKHAUS Bombay and Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., Lrp.

All rights reserved

Copyrighted in America

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CAMBRIDGE MEDIEVAL HISTORY

PLANNED BY

epee Uae IVA

REGIUS PROFESSOR OF MODERN HISTORY

EDITED BY

H. M. GWATKIN, M.A. J. P. WHITNEY, B.D.

VOLUME II

ieee Rish OF THE SARACENS AND THE FOUNDATION OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE

CAMBRIDGE lee Eee NIV RS LY ar ik Bo5 1913

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UPLAND COLLEGE LIBRARY UPLAND, CALIFORNIA

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Cambringe : PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A.

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS

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PREFACE.

| ies present volume of the Cambridge Medieval History covers the

stormy period of about three hundred years from Justinian to Charles the Great inclusive. It is a time little known to the general reader, and even students of history in this country seldom turn their attention to any part of it but the Conversion of the English. Hence, English books are scarce—Dr Hodgkin’s Italy and her Invaders is the brilliant exception which proves the rule—and the editors have had to rely more on foreign scholars than in the former volume. Some indeed of the chapters treat of subjects on which very little has ever been written in English, such as the Visigoths in Spain, the organisation of Imperial Italy and Africa, the Saracen invasions of Sicily and Italy, and the early history and expansion of the Slavs.

Professor Dieh] begins with two chapters on Justinian, one dealing with the conquest of Africa and Italy by Belisarius and Narses, and the imperial restoration in the West, the other devoted to the administration in the East—the Empress Theodora and her influence, Justinian’s buildings and diplomacy, and government civil and _ ecclesiastical. The city of Constantinople is reserved for the same writer in Volume IV. Dr Roby follows, with a general survey of Roman Law, of its history and growth, and of its completion by the legislation of Justinian. A survey of this kind has hardly been attempted since the famous forty-fourth chapter of Gibbon. Then Professor Pfister takes up the story of the Franks at the accession of Clovis, where he left it in the first volume, and traces the growth and decline of the Merovingian kingdom to the deposition of the last of the rots fainéants. He then follows it up with another chapter on the political and social institutions of Gaul in Merovingian times—the King, the Mayor of the Palace, the Bishop, the origin of the benefice, the state of literature and commerce. In the next chapter we turn with Dr Altamira to the Visigoths in Spain, and follow their stormy history from the defeat at Vouglé, through the Councils of Toledo, to the times of Count Julian and the Saracen Conquest, and to some further discussion of Gothic law. The next writer

vi Preface

is Dr Hartmann, who traces the early history of the Lombards and their settlement in Italy, their conversion and the story of Theodelinda. After her come Rothari and Grimoald, and the great king Liutprand, and parallel with the main narrative is traced the history of the duchies of Friuli and Spoleto. So he comes to the conquests of Aistulf and the Frankish intervention, and then to the reign of Desiderius, under whom the Lombard power seemed to reach its height—and vanished in a moment at the touch of Charles the Great. The next section, also by Dr Hart- mann, is on the Byzantine administration of Africa and Italy. Its special interest is the development of local powers in Italy—not only the Pontifical State, but Venice and other cities. We can see before the fall of the Byzantine power that Italy will be a land of cities. Then Archdeacon Hutton takes up the life of Gregory the Great. He has to tell of Gregory’s administration and his measures for the defence of Rome from the Lombards, of his dealings with Emperor and Patriarch, of his relations with Brunhild and 'Theodelinda, and of his oversight of all the Western churches, reserving only the Mission to the English for a later chapter. Then Mr Norman Baynes gives a living picture of Justinian’s successors—the unpractical Justin, the pedant Maurice, the crusader Heraclius, and of the tremendous vicissitudes of the Persian War, with Persians and Avars at one time besieging Constantinople, and Heraclius within two years winning the battle of Nineveh, and dictating peace from the heart of Media. The next three chapters are devoted to Islam. If this is the most brilliant part of Gibbon’s narrative, it is also the part which more than almost any other needs revision in the light of later research. Professor Bevan begins with the life of Mahomet, and Dr Becker of Hamburg follows with the expansion of the Saracens, relating in one chapter their conquest of Syria and Egypt, the overthrow of Persia, and the rise and fall of the Umayyads. In another he traces their westward course through Africa and Egypt to Spain till their defeat at Tours, and then turns to the formation of Muslim kingdoms, their conquest of Sicily and their attacks on Italy to the coming of the Normans. Mr Brooks takes the successors of Heraclius to the coming of Leo the Isaurian. The chief topics of this chapter are the advance of the Arabs and their attacks on Constantinople, the history of the Monothelete Controversy, and the fall of the Heraclian dynasty. Dr Peisker takes us into a new region, describing the original country of the Slavs, their society and religion, and their modes of warfare. He then discusses their place in history, their relations to their German and Altaian conquerors, their spread on the German border and in the Balkan countries, and the new social conditions which prevailed when

Preface vil

Slav states became independent. Professor Camille Jullian’s section on Keltic heathenism in Gaul goes back to the times of Caesar, but it coheres closely with Sir E. Anwyl’s pages on Keltic heathenism in the British Isles. These are placed here rather than in the former volume for the purpose of bringing them into connexion not only with Germanic heathenism but with the Christianity which replaced them. Our material, not rich for Gaul, is scanty for Britain: it is only when we come to Germanic heathenism—the section taken by Miss Phillpotts—that we seem to see the living power of the religion. The next is an analogous chapter devoted to Christianity. Mr Warren first tells us the little that is known of Christianity in Roman Britain, then relates the story of its spread to Ireland and Scotland. In another section Mr Whitney traces first the conversion of the English from Augustine’s landing through the reigns of Edwin and Oswald to the decisive victory at Winwaedfield, followed by the Synod of Whitby and the coming of Theodore. He then turns to Germany, where the story gathers round the names of Columbanus, Willibrord and Boniface, and stops short of Charles the Great’s conversion of the Saxons by the sword. Mr Corbett takes up the history and institutions of the English from Edwin’s time to the death of Offa. The thread of his narrative is the growth of Mercia— the ups and downs of its long struggle under Penda with Northumbria, the revolt under Wulfhere, and the formation of the commanding power wielded by Aethelbald and Offa. Its overthrow by Ecgbert belongs to the next volume. Mr Burr contributes a short chapter on the eventful reign of Pepin—a man whose fame is unduly eclipsed by that of the great Emperor who followed him. Its main lines are the change of dynasty, the intervention in Italy, the Donation, and the conquest of Aquitaine. Then Dr Gerhard Seeliger surveys the Conquests and Imperial Coronation of Charles the Great. He begins with the destruc- tion of the Lombard kingdom, the precarious submission of Benevento and the settlement of Italian affairs: then come the disaster of Roncevalles and the gradual formation of the Spanish March. After this the annexation of Bavaria, the break-up of the Avars, and the long wars with Saxons and Danes. ‘There remain the idea of the Empire, the events which led to the Coronation and its meaning, and Charles’ relations to the Eastern Empire. Professor Vinogradoff then discusses the foundations of society and the origins of Feudalism. He describes the various forms of kinship, natural and artificial, the organisation of society, the growth of kingship, taxation, the beneficium, and the fusion of Roman and Germanic influences which resulted in Feudalism. Dr Seeliger returns to the legislation and administration of Charles the

Vili Preface

Great. He marks the theocratic character of the Carlovingian State, and proceeds to describe the king and his court, the royal revenues, the military system, the assemblies, the legislation, the provincial officials, the missi dominici, and the failure of the central power, and of the Empire with it. Dr Foakes-Jackson concludes with a survey of the growth of the Papacy, chiefly from Gregory to Charles the Great—of its relations to the Empire and the Lombards, of its negotiations with the Franks, of the Frankish intervention and the beginnings of the Temporal Power, and of the circumstances and significance of the Imperial Coronation. He covers much the same period as Professor Seeliger, but he puts the Papacy instead of the Franks in the foreground of his picture.

We are indebted to our critics for many hints and some corrections, and we gratefully acknowledge their appreciation of the splendid work done by Dr Peisker and others of our valued contributors: but on one important question we are quite impenitent. The repetitions of which some of them complain are not due to any carelessness in editing, but to the deliberate belief of the Editors that some events may with advantage be related more than once by different writers in different connexions and from different points of view. Thus, to take an instance actually given, the sack of Rome by Gaiseric is a cardinal event in the history of the Vandals, and a cardinal event in that of the last days of the Empire in the West. In which chapter would they advise us to leave it out? Repetitions there must be, if individual chapters are not to be mutilated. Nor are we much concerned about occasional disagreements of our contributors, though we have sometimes indicated them in a note. Consistency is always a virtue in a single writer; not always in a composite work like this. We have often called the attention of one contributor to the fact that another is of a different opinion ; but we see no advantage in endeavouring to conceal the fact that students of history do not always come to the same conclusions.

Our best thanks are due to Miss A. D. Greenwood for the laborious work of preparing the maps and the index: also to Professor Bevan for settling the orthography of unfamiliar Oriental names.

April 1913,

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

JUSTINIAN. THE IMPERIAL RESTORATION IN THE WEST,

By Cuartes Dien, Member of the Institute of France,

Professor at the University of Paris.

Accession of Justin Justinian’s character Justinian’s aims

Last years of Theodoric

The Persian War.

The Nika riot

The Byzantine army Conquest of Africa

Conquest of Italy.

Totila . :

End of the Gothic kingdom Imperial position of Justinian Administration in Africa and Italy Results of Justinian’s reign .

CHAPTER II.

JUSTINIAN’S GOVERNMENT IN THE EAST.

By Professor CHartes DtEHt.

Early life and marriage of Theodora . Her religious policy

The Persian Wars

The Huns :

Justinian’s fortresses and oiher buildings Justinian’s diplomacy . : Domestic government of the East Constantinople and its trade

Fiscal oppression .

The Church . : ;

Dealings with the Monophysites F

Pope Vigilius 5 Last years and results of J ustinian’s reign .

C. MED. H, VOL. II.

Contents

CHAPTER III. ROMAN LAW.

By H. J. Rosy, M.A., Hon. LL.D. Camb. and Edin., Hon. Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.

PAGE Modern influence of Roman Law : : , : ; ; 53 Sources of Law . : ; 2 : , : 7 54 The Codex Pneddanenis , : : : 2 : : j 55 Barbarian revisions of it . : : ; ; j : 2 57 Legislation of Justinian : : : 3 ; : 59 Slaves, Freedmen, Serfs : : ; : ; : F F 62 Patria potestas—Adoption . : : : : : : 66 Guardianship é : 7 P : : : : : : 68 Marriage : : : : 4 5 , 2 : : 70 Divorse : : ; : : : : 7 Concubinage and Legitimation : ; : : : : . 76 Wills and Inheritance . : ; : , , ; 78 (inuctsame : 2 : ; é : A : : : 82 Intestacy : : : : : : : - Sa nyeee 85 Gifts. 2 : : : : é 87 Property —Servitudes—Bmphyteusis : : 4 ; : : 88 Obligations . : : : 2 : = A 90 Toren sreticns : : : f . : ; 92 Purchase and Sale—Lease nad Hire ; 5 : : : : 94 Partnership—Companies : : : : ; ; : - 95 Delicts . ; ; : i : ; e : : . 99 Procedure. : i ; : : : : 4 : : 100 Evidence : ; ; ; : : : 101 Criminal Law : : , : : 2 : : . : 103 Crimes . : 5 3 ; : : : : : : , 105 Punishments F : , : d ; : . : 107 Heresy . : : . : : é : : : : 108

CHAPTER IV.

GAUL UNDER THE MEROVINGIAN FRANKS. NARRATIVE OF EVENTS.

By Dr Curistran Prisrer, Professor in the Faculty of Letters, of Paris.

Gaul at the accession of Clovis . 2 : ; d : 109 Beginnings of Clovis. : : : : : : 111 Conversion of Clovis. : j 5 : : : : ; 112 Battle of Vouglé . : ; : , ; : : : ; 114 The sons of Clovis . . 5 ; F ; 116

Conquest of the Burgundian kingdom. : : ; ; 117

Contents

Armorica .

The Franks in Italy

The grandsons of Clovis Chilperic : :

Brunhild

Reunion under Chlotar Il

Reign of Dagobert

The fainéant kings

Battle of Tertry .

Charles Martel shen of the Palace Battle of Tours : Pepin becomes king

CHAPTER V. GAUL UNDER THE MEROVINGIAN FRANKS.

INSTITUTIONS.

By Professor Curistran PFIsTER.

The King .

‘The Campus Martius

The Mayor of the Palace

Local administration

Justice .

Taxation

The Army .

The Church—the Bishops Relations with the Papacy . : Monasteries—Columbanus—Benedictine Rale Origin of Vassalage

Origin of the Benefice .

Industry and Commerce

Venantius Fortunatus—Gregory of Tours Art

CHAPTER VI. SPAIN UNDER THE VISIGOTHS.

PAGE 118 119 120 121 122 123 125 126 127 128 129 131

133 135 136 137 139 140 141 142 146 147 151 153 155 156 158

By Dr Rararet Auramira, Director- general of Primary Instruc-

tion (Ministry of Public Instruction) ; of Jurisprudence in the University of Oviedo.

Alaric II—Battle of Vougleé. Death of Clovis : Amalaric—Theudis Athanagild

Leovigild

Religious division . : Revolt of Hermenegild

late Professor

xil

Contents

Reign of Recared .

Conversion of the Vises Swinthila—Expulsion of Byzantines

Reign of Chindaswinth

Receswinth

Wanibale Bewig = Keica

Persecution of the Jews

Witiza—Roderick .

Story of Count Julian . :

Battle of La Janda—Arab Conquest Councils of Toledo : Mutual influences of the Goths oat Spain : Literature and Art of the Goths .

CHAPTER VII.

ITALY UNDER THE LOMBARDS.

By Dr L. M. Harrmann, Privatdocent, Vienna.

Early history of the Lombards Alboin’s invasion of Italy Spoleto and Benevento

Authari ¢

Theodelinda and Agilulf

Duchy of Friuli Rothari—Grimoald . The Bavarian dynasty—Perctarit. Roman influence—Government Society . :

Reign of Liutprand Ratchis—Aistulf .

The Frankish Intervention . Desiderius .

End of the Demterd kingdom Causes of its fall

CHAPTER VIII.

PAGE 171 172 175 176 177 179 181 182 183 185 188 190 192

(A) IMPERIAL ITALY AND AFRICA: ADMINISTRATION.

By Dr Harrmann.

Foundation of Imperial Administration The Exarch . :

Militarising of the arabs ctcition

The Church and the Administration

Effect of the Italian Revolution . Pontifical State under Byzantine eweraintys Venice, Naples, Amalfi

222 226 227 229 231 233 234

Contents xiii

(B) GREGORY THE GREAT.

By the Ven. W. H. Hurroy, B.D., Archdeacon of Northampton, Canon of Peterborough, Fellow of St John’s College, Oxford.

PAGE Early life of Gregory . A : 3 3 ; 5 : é 236 Gregory at Constantinople . : : 3 ; : ; 5 238 Gregory Pope : ; : ; : : : : ; 240 Gregory’s administration : , : F é : : 3 242 Disputes with the Emperor . : : : : : 5 : 245 Controversy with John the Faster ; : : : : : 247 Church and State ; : : : ; : é A 248 Dealings with the Lombards 5 : : : : c 249 Gregory and Phocas. . : : : : : : 6 0 250 Historical position of Gregory . : : : ; : : 251 Relations with Africa . 5 : : : ; : : 252 Mission to the English ; : : : ; ; : : 254 Relations with Gaul. : 5 : : : : 256 Gregory and the Visigoths . : : é : : 6 259 Character and influence of Gregory . 5 : 3 : H 261

CHAPTER IX. THE SUCCESSORS OF JUSTINIAN,

By Norman H. Baynes, M.A. Oxon., Barrister-at-Law.

Accession and Policy of Justin II : ; : : 4 ; 263 Negotiations with Persia. ( : : : ; s , 266 Avars and Turks . : : - ; 5 é . d ; 268 The Persian War. : : : : ; : ; ; 271 Policy of Tiberius : , : : : ; i ; 273 Tiberius Emperor. : ; ; : : : : : . 275 Maurice Emperor. : : : : : ; ; 277 Chosroes restored by Maurice ; : : ; ; ; 280 Campaigns on the Danube . : é ; A . 281 Phocas Emperor—Character of Maurice ; : : 3 2 282 Persian War 5 5 : : 5 : 3 285 Revolt of Africa—Heraclius “Emperor ; : : : : ; 287 Persian War—Capture of Jerusalem . 3 , ; ; 5 289 The Avar Surprise : j : : - é : . : ale Invasion of Persia 3 : : : : : 3 . 293 Siege of Constantinople / : ; ; : 295 Battle of Nineveh—March on Ctesiphon : : 6 : : 298 Peace with Persia ; d : : 5 : 3 299

Character of Heraclius. 300

Xiv Contents

CHAPTER X. MAHOMET AND ISLAM.

By A. A. Bevan, M.A., Lord Almoner’s Reader and Professor of Arabic in ae University of Cambridge.

PAGE Sources of our knowledge . : : : : : : : 302 Arabia before Islam . : - . : : ; < : 303 Mecca . : , : : E : ; ; : 304 Early life of Mahomet : - : : 305 Doctrine of the Koran—Religious practices. : : : - 308 Opposition of the Meccans . : 5 : : : : 310 The Flight to Medina . : : - : 313 Legislation of the Koran—-Mahomet’s domestic life . : : 315 Battles of Badr and Uhud . : ; ; : : : 317 Siege of Medina . : ¢ : : : : ; - 320 Treaty with the Meccans . : . ; é 4 ; ; 322 Capture of Mecca. : : : é = ; : ; 324 Death of Mahomet : : : : ; . ; ' 327

CHAPTER XI.

THE EXPANSION OF THE SARACENS—THE EAST.

By C. H. Becker, Professor of Oriental History in the Colonial Institute of Hamburg.

Historical aspect of Islam _ . : : ; - : : : 329 The Arab Migration

331 Abt Bakr Caliph. 333 The Ridda War 335 Khalid on the Euphrates 338 Battle of Ajnadain—of the Yermate 341 Omar Caliph : : : : ' : ; ; ; 342 Capture of Jerusalem . : 5 : ; : : 345 Fall of Ctesiphon—Conquest of Persia ; : - : 347 Egypt—The Mukaukis Problem . : : : : : é 349 Conquest of Egypt : ¢ 351 Wars in Armenia 353 Attacks on Constantinople 354 Othman Caliph 355 Ali and Mu‘awiya 357 Mu‘awiya Caliph . 358 Murder of Husain at Karbala 359 Organisation of the Arabian Empire 861

Later Umayyad Tae : i j : : 363 The Abbasids : 5 ; : . . : :

Contents

XV

CHAPTER XII.

THE EXPANSION OF THE SARACENS (continued). AFRICA AND EUROPE.

By Professor Brecker.

PAGE Occupation of Alexandria . , ; : : : : é 366 Attacks on Byzantine Africa : : ; A : - é 367 Pacification of Africa . : : 3 . A ; : c 370 Conquest of Spain ; é ; : : 371 Crossing of the Pyrenees—Baitle of aes ; : : ; 373 Saracen failure in Gaul : ; : ; : : 5 : 375 Fall of the Umayyads . : ; 5 : 377 Northern Africa—Idrisids and Fatimites : ; : : ; 378 Conquest of Sicily ' : 2 ; ; : ; : 5 380 Invasion of Italy . : . : ; 5 : : ; é 383 Attack on Rome . : : : : : ; , ; 385 Byzantine conquest of Bari . ; : 4 - : 6 , 387 Decline of the Saracen power. : 5 A : 3 : 389

CHAPTER XIII. THE SUCCESSORS OF HERACLIUS TO 717.

By E. W. Brooxs, M.A., King’s College, Cambridge. Death of Heraclius ; ; : : 6 ; : ; 391 Constans Emperor : : : 3 : 7 3 b ; 392 Constans in Italy. : : A : c ; : A é 394 Constantine [IV Emperor. : c : : : 3 395 Saracen attacks on Constantinople : : : : : ? 397 The Monothelete Controversy—Pope Honorius . ; ; ; 398 Arrest and deposition of Pope Martin. : : ; > : 401 Sixth General Council . ' : ; : : ; ; 404 Justinian I] Emperor . : F : ; : , ; : 406 Trullan Council . : ; ; : 3 : : : 3 408 Leontius Emperor : ; ; : : ; ; : : 409 Tiberius (Apsimar) Emperor ; : : 4 : : ; 410 Justinian restored : : é , ; , : : 411 Philippicus Emperor E : 5 , 9 413 Anastasius IJ Emperor : : : : : : : 415 Theodosius Emperor . : : 5 : ° 5 : 416

Accession of Leo the Neanrian F : é - : : : 417

xvi Contents CHAPTER XIV. THE EXPANSION OF THE SLAVS. By T. Petsxer, Ph.D., Privatdocent and Librarian, Graz.

PAGE Polesie—Soil, climate, anthropology . ; : : : : 418 Village-Community—Agriculture . : : : : : ; 422 National character—Religion . : : : : 424 Early Expansion— Waterways—Pontus Steppe : : : : 426 Commerce—Slave-hunts ; : é : : : 428 Slavs in German and Altaian Slavery . : : : ; : 430 Expansion of the Slavs in Old Germania . : : : . 435 Avars and Slavs . : : : : ; : : 436 The Roumanians . F ; : 3 : ; : : 440 End of the Avar power : : 3 : : 4 : 442 The Zupans : : : : : . : é 443 The Alpine Slavs ‘(Slovenes) ° : : 3 ; : ; 445 Social history of the Slovenes. : : : : : 446 Peasant-Princes in Bohemia and Poland : ; : : : 448 Samo’s kingdom . : : : : : ; : : : 452 Influence of Avar Slavery . S : ; : : : F 453 Defensive power of the Slavs . ; ; : : : 455 Elbe-Slavs and Vikings A : : : : : : : 456 Social ideas of the Slavs. : : : : : : s 457

CHAPTER XV. (A) KELTIC HEATHENISM IN GAUL. By Camitir Juiiian, Professor of the College of France, and Member of the Institute.

The Gods . : 5 : : : : : : 460 Worship of the dead : : : é ; 461 Star-gods—National gods. : ; : : : : 462 Representation of the gods . : F : : : : ; 464 Sacred animals and plants . : : ; : : : 465 Sacred buildings . ; ; : : : : A : 466 Doctrine : : : : : ; : E : - : 467 Druidism : : : : ; : : ; : : 468

Literature . : A : . : 5 : 471

Contents

XVil

(B) KELTIC HEATHENISM IN THE BRITISH ISLES.

By Professor Sir Epwarp Anwyt, M.A., University College,

Aberystwyth.

The Gods

Goddesses

Legendary names :

Evidence of Chrisians—-Follelore Survivals of heathenism

(C) GERMANIC HEATHENISM.

By Miss B. Puitirorrs, Lecturer of Girton College, Cambridge.

Sources of our knowledge

Thor or Thunor

Odin or Wodan 3

Nerthus—other deities .

Fate—Cult of the dead

Chthonic deities—other objects of worship . Sacrifices— Priests— Kings ; : Funeral customs—Life after death Underlying ideas .

CHAPTER XVI. (A) CONVERSION OF THE KELTS.

By Rey. F. E. Warren, B.D., Rector of Bardwell, Bury St Edmunds.

(1) Romayn Britain.

Introduction of Christianity . British Bishops and Saints . Orthodoxy of the Britons

Remains left by the British Church

(2) Irevann.

Introduction of Christianity . Times before St Patrick Work of St Patrick Survivals of heathenism

(8) Scornanp.

Sources of our knowledge Conversion of Strathclyde Conversion of the Picts

PAGE 472 476 477 478 479

XViil Contents

(B) CONVERSION OF THE TEUTONS.,

By the Rev. J. P. Wuirney, B.D., Professor of Ecclesiastical History, King’s College London.

(1) Tue Ene.isu.

PAGE Pope Gregory ; : : ; ; : ; : : , 515 Augustine’s Mission. : 2 . : : ; : 516 Gregory's scheme of division : : : ; : : : 519 Kelts and Romans ; ; ; ; ; 4 : 520 Northumbria—Edwin . : ; : ; ; : : : §22 Paulinus—Death of Edwin . : F : ; : : 524 Monastic Houses—Bede ; 5 : : , : . 526 The Scots Mission ; F ; : : : P : 528 Wilfrid—Synod of Whitby . ; 2 : : : : : 530

(2) Germany. The Keltic Monks : . : : : , : 2 533 Willibrord . : : ; : : : : 535 Winfrid (Boniface) ; : é : : : ; : : 536 Organisation of Sees. . : ; ; : - : 538 Pope Zacharias . : : ° . ; : : ; ; 539 Councils 3 , : ; : : é : : 540 The work of Bonee : : : ; ; 2 , , : 541 CHAPTER XVII. ENGLAND (ro ec. 800) AND ENGLISH INSTITUTIONS. By W. J. Corzerr, M.A., Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge.

Growth of Mercia—Battle of Heathfield . : ; : : 543 Oswald of Bernicia : : : j : : ; : : 545 Battle of the Winwaed : E : . , : : d 547 Changes made by Christianity. : ; 5 : : : 548 Introduction of the Hidage System . : : : : : 550 Revolt of the Mercians against Oswy . : , 3 A 552 Ascendancy of Mercia . : : : : 2 : : : 553 Synod of Whitby . : : : : : : ; : : 554 Theodore of Tarsus : . : F d ; F . : 555 Subdivision of dioceses. : ; . : : : ; 556 Endowment of the Church . 3 : . 558 Battle of Nechtansmere—Death of Theodore : * : : 559 Wessex under Ceadwalla and Ine : : ; ; ; 560 Aethelbald of Mercia . : < : : : 563 Reign of Offa—Archbishopric of Lichfield : ; : : : 564 Socal Organisation of the English . : : é : 5 566 The Witan 5 i . a : ; ; ‘| : : 569 Tendencies to Feudalian : : , . ; : : ; ail Schools and Scholars . : 3 : : : : 513

Bede— Alcuin : . : A ; ; : ; ; 574

Contents XIX CHAPTER XVIII. THE CARLOVINGIAN REVOLUTION, AND FRANKISH INTERVENTION IN ITALY. By G. L. Burr, Professor of Modern History, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. PAGE Pepin as Mayor of the Palace 575 Affairs in eee apenas Lombards 577 Pepin King . : : 581 Aistulf’s claims 582 The Pope in Francia ; 584 Pepin Patrician of the Romans 585 The Donation of Constantine 586 The Donation of Pepin 588 The Frankish Intervention . 589 Desiderius King of the Lombards 591 Pepin’s wars—Conquest of Aquitaine . 592 Character of Pepin 594 CHAPTER XIX. CONQUESTS AND IMPERIAL CORONATION OF CHARLES THE GREAT. By Dr Geruarp SEELIGER, Professor of Law in the University of Leipsic.

Charles and Carloman . 595 The Donation of Constantine 597 The Patriciate . 598 End of the Lombard inedar 599 Settlement of Italian affairs . 600 Charles and the Pope . 603 Invasion of Spain—Roncevalles 604 Bavaria—Deposition of Tassilo 606 The Avars : 608 The Saxon Wars . 610 The Danes 614 Ecclesiastical affairs 616 Idea of the Empire 617 Pope Leo III ; 619 The Imperial Coronation and its cneating : 620 Relations with the East 624 Death of Charles . : 625 Charles in Legend and in Wietory 626

sek Contents CHAPTER XX,

FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIETY (ORIGINS OF FEUDALISM). By Paut Vrnocravorr, Hon. D.C.L., F.B.A., Corpus Professor of Jurisprudence, Oxford.

PAGE Kinship 631 Later traces of kinship é 634 Adoption and artificial relationships 635 Households . i 637 The Gave. 639 Growth of Kingship 640 Power of the Kings 641 Comites, Sajones, Huskaris 642 Taxation 644 Tenures by Service 647 The Beneficitum 648 Jurisdictions . , 651 Distinction of Classes . 5 653 Roman and Germanic influences . 654

CHAPTER XXI. LEGISLATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF CHARLES THE GREAT. By Dr Gerard SEELIGER.

Theocratic character of the Frankish State. 656 Administration 657 Unification of the Bmpire 659 The King 660 The Court 662 The Revenue 664 Military Service 666 Judicial System 668 Assemblies and their Dechae 669 Law—The Capitularies . 672 Local Government 677 The Counts . 678 The Marches 680 The Missi Dominici 682

The Empire .

Contents

XXi

CHAPTER XXII.

THE PAPACY, TO CHARLES THE GREAT.

By the Rev. F. J. Foaxrs-Jacxson, D.D., Fellow of Jesus

College, Cambridge.

Progress of the Lombards Rome and Church Doctrine. Dictation of the Emperors Monotheletism—Iconoclasm . Pope and Lombards Negotiations with the F Pans Boniface : é The Frankish nucle F Donation of Pepin :

Fall of the Lombard kingdom Outrage on Pope Leo UL Carolus Augustus . Significance of the Coronation

PAGE 686 688 689 690 692 695 697 698 700 702 703 704 706

CHAPS.

ihe

IIL. IV, V.

VI. VIL

VIII (a).

VIIE (2). iD. <

XTeex Le

XII. SIN. XV (a). XV (38). XV (c). XVI (4).

XVI (2).

XVIL. XVIII.

XIX.

XX. XXI.

XXII.

Xxii LIST OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

Abbreviations

General Bibliography for Velie a

Justinian. The Imperial Restoration in the West . :

Justinian’s Conerment in fee Hee

Roman Law .

Gaul under the Aeroingian hae

Spain under the y ratlis

Italy under the Lombards :

Imperial Italy and Africa (administration

Gregory the Great

The Successors of Justinian .

Mahomet and Islam

The Expansion of the Saracens

The Successors of Heraclius .

Expansion of the Slavs.

Gallic Religion

Celtic Heathendom in fe British ine

Germanic Heathendom . , ; :

(1) British Christianity in Roman _ times. (2) Conversion of Ireland. (3) Conversion of Scotland : :

(1) Conversion of the “Bnglich: “) Con- version of the Germans :

England (to c. 800) and English Tastinmtione :

The Carolingian Revolution and Frank Inter- vention in Italy.

Conquests and Imperial Cornecan of Chae the Great .

Foundations of Society .

Legislation and Administration of Chicks: ie Great . :

Growth of the Papal Poae :

CHRONOLOGICAL Ta OF ie Events

INDEX

PAGES 7O7—9 710—9 720—2 723—5 726—7 728—32 733—8 739—41

742 743—6 747—57 758—9 760—5 766—9 T70—84

785

785 786—90 791—2 793—7

798—800 801—8

809 810—12

813 814—7 818—21

822

XXxlil

LIST OF MAPS. VOLUME II.

(See separate portfolio.)

The Empire at the end of Justinian’s Reign. Empire of Charles the Great. England, circa a.p. 700. The Eastern Frontier of the Empire in the 6th and 7th Centuries. Frankish Dominions, a.p. 511—561. Gaul under the sons of Chlotar I, a.p. 568. Spain, to illustrate the Visigothic Era. Italy under the Lombards. Arabia and Egypt. The Caliphate under Hartin-er-Rashid and the Saracen Conquests. Eastern Europe, circa a.p. 850. The Western Front of Slavdom in the 7th and 8th Centuries s.p. (North). The Western Front of Slavdom in the 7th and 8th Centuries a.p, (South). Scotland and Ireland, to illustrate the Conversion of the Celts.

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XXIV

ERRATA.

Vou. I.

. 189, 1. 18. For finetini read finitimi.

1. 10 from foot. For Mittenberg read Miltenberg.

note. For Kessima read Kossinna.

. 194, 1. 7. For Endusi read Sedusi.

. 199, 1. 19. For Daeid read Dacia.

note % For Damaszewski read Domaszewski.

. 277, 1. 19. Delete by force of arms.

. 468, ll. 39, 42. For Eudoxia read Eudocia.

. 518, 1. 15. For addition read Peter’s addition.

1, 16. For Peter’s Theopaschite read it.

. 615, BEC. or Chartres read Chartes.

628, Pears. or Contemporary Review read EHR.

630, Julian. After Rheinisches Museum add xu (1887), pp. 15-27 and

delete Frankfurt-a-M. 1827....

631, 1. 19. For Nicephorus, Callistus read Nicephorus Callistus.

. 633, Kellerbauer. For x1, pp. 81-121 read 1x, pp. 181-221.

634, 1. 1. Delete full stop after Julian.

641, Teuffel. For geschichtlichen Wiss. read Geschichtswiss. Strauss. For Thron read Throne.

653, Stihelin. For 1908 read 1905.

680, 1. 11. Haury refers to Sauerbrei’s art. below.

724, last line. Delete Heraclius [the mag. mii. ].

726. Delete Isokasios, quaestor of Antioch, 113 and (three lines above) read

Is. of Antioch, Cilician philosopher, quaestor, 113, 472.

Vou. II.

131, 1. 15 from foot. or Worms read Wiirzburg.

200, 1. 9. For Garibal read Garibald.

213, last line. For Zachary read Zacharias.

287. Despite Theophanes 2967, Alexandria probably did not fall till 609. Heraclius probably sailed from Africa in 610.

. 299, A hitherto unnoticed passage in a contemporary document —the

*Emdvodos Tod Aewpdvou Tod dyiov pdptupos “Avactaciou éx Hepaidos eis Td

povaotnpioy avtov (Acta Martyris Anastasii Persae, ed. Usener, p. 12, 34a)

—seems to show that Heraclius did not reach Jerusalem until a.p. 630,

whence he travelled to Constantina.

. 414, 1. 6 from foot. For six synods read sixth synod.

. 442, last line of text. Delete later than 641. ;

- 496, note. Substitute SPAW 1904 (xxv).

. 506, 1. 4 from foot. For ire-all read ire, all.

. 525, 1. 18. For seemed read seem.

. 690, 1. 17. For Martin V read Martin I.

CHAPTER I.

JUSTINIAN. THE IMPERIAL RESTORATION IN THE WEST.

if

On 9 July 518 the Emperor Anastasius died, leaving nephews only as his heirs. The succession was therefore quite undecided. An obscure intrigue brought the Commander-in-Chief of the Guard, the comes excubitorum Justin, to the throne. This adventurer had found his way to Constantinople from the mountains of his native Illyricum in search of fortune, and now became, at the age of almost seventy years, the founder of a dynasty.

The position of the new prince did not lack difficulties. Ever since 484, when the schism of Acacius embroiled the Eastern Empire with the Papacy, incessant religious and political agitations had shaken the monarchy. Under pretence of defending the orthodox faith, the ambitious Vitalianus had risen against Anastasius several times, and proved a constant menace to the new sovereign, since he had made himself almost independent in his province of Thrace. The Monophysite party, on the other hand, which had been warmly supported by Anastasius, suspected the intentions of Justin, and upheld the family of its former protector against him. Placed between two difficulties, the Emperor found that he could rely neither on the army, whose allegiance was uncertain, nor on the disturbed capital, torn by the struggles of the Greens and Blues, nor yet on the discontented provinces, ruined as they were by war, and crushed under the weight of the taxes. He saw that nothing short of a new political direction could keep his government from foundering.

The part played by Justin himself in the new order of things was a subordinate one. He was a brave soldier, but almost completely lacking in comprehension of things beyond the battle-field. Quite uncultured, he could hardly read, still less write. Historians tell us that when he became Emperor, and was obliged to sign official documents, a plaque of wood was made for him, with holes cut in it corresponding to the

C. MED. H. VOL, Il. CH. I. i

2 Justinian [518-565

letters of the imperial title. By means of these cracks the sovereign guided his halting hand. Having little acquaintance with the civil administration, ignorant of the intricacies of politics, diplomacy and theology, he would have been quite overwhelmed by his position, had he not had someone behind him, to help and guide him. 'This was his sister’s son, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus, known to us as Justinian.

Justinian, as well as his uncle, was born in Macedonia, in the village of Tauresium, near Uskub. He was a peasant of the Latin race, and by no means a Slav as romantic traditions of a much later date affirm. To these traditions a value has long been assigned which they do not possess. Justinian went early to Constantinople by his uncle’s request, and received a thoroughly Roman and Christian education in the schools of the capital. When, through a piece of good luck, Justin became Emperor, his nephew was about thirty-six years old; he was experienced in politics, his character was formed and his intellect matured. He was quite prepared for the position of coadjutor to the new Caesar, and immediately assumed it. The good will of his uncle brought him step by step nearer to the foot of the throne. He became in turn Count, vir illustris, patrician. He was Consul in 521, Commander-in-Chief of the troops which garrisoned the capital (magister equitum et peditum praesentalis), nobilissimus, and finally, in 527, Justin adopted him and associated him in the Empire itself. Under these various titles it was he who really governed in his uncle’s name, while he